The UK will be able to enter into trade agreements with third countries; However, the customs union would significantly reduce the UK`s ability to have very different trade relations with them, particularly with regard to products. There would be more opportunities for the UK to offer different conditions for trade in services and sectors such as public procurement. Some EU rules on food and agriculture also apply to NI during the backstop period. Existing controls on animals and animal products moving from the UK to NI need to be strengthened. The political statement states that provisions to address health and plant protection barriers to trade barriers should be introduced “on the basis of WTO agreements and going beyond.” That is what Brandon Lewis, the Minister of Northern Ireland, referred to in September, when he spoke of a “very specific and limited violation of international law”. The border is a sensitive issue because of the history of Northern Ireland and peace evacuation agreements, including the elimination of visible signs of the border. On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020 and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020.  That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratification of the agreement, concluding the agreement and allowing it to enter into force on the date of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU on 31 January 2020, at 11 .m GMT. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union.
The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. On 23 March 2018, EU and UK negotiators reached an agreement on the draft withdrawal agreement allowing the European Council (Article 50) to adopt guidelines for the framework for future eu-UK relations. The reception of the agreement in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile, and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May has received a motion of no confidence within her own party, but the EU has refused to accept further changes. The withdrawal agreement between the European Union and the United Kingdom sets out the conditions for the UK`s orderly exit from the EU, in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on european Union. Therefore, if one of the proposals in the Internal Market Act that contradicts the withdrawal agreement did become law, it would violate the government`s international obligations. The UK has launched the formal process of withdrawal negotiations by formally announcing the European Council`s intention to leave the EU. 474The NIHRC is required to monitor the implementation of Article 2, paragraph 1, of the protocol (78A, paragraph 1). It will also be required to report to the Secretary of State and the Executive Office of Northern Ireland on the application of Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Protocol (78A, paragraph 2) and to compel them to respond to such a report and to clarify the actions they have taken or are considering taking in response to the recommendations in the report (78A(3)).
If the NIHRC submits such a report under subsection 3, the Secretary of State submits a copy of the report to Parliament and the Executive Office must provide a copy to the Assembly (78A (4)). The withdrawal agreement negotiated between the EU and the UK and concluded on 14 November 2018 will be discussed in detail in this briefing.