1971: Agreement on the use of the United States Middle East Force in Bahrain (22 U.S.T. 2184) – – amended by the 1975 agreement for the deployment of the United States Middle East Force (26 U.S.T. 3027) and 1977 Agreement on the Status of Administrative Support Unit Personnel (28 U.T.5312) 1991: Agreement about the station of United States forces (T.I.A.s. 122366) 9. Law enforcement agencies must not use firearms against persons, with the exception of self-defence or the defence of others against the imminent threat of death or serious injury, in order to avoid the commission of a particularly serious and seriously risky crime, to arrest and oppose its authority, or to prevent its flight, and only if less than extreme means are not sufficient to achieve these objectives. In any event, the fatal deliberate use of firearms can only take place if it is absolutely inevitable for the protection of life. The first weeks of 2020 proved to be quite eventful for the international community. After an opening salvo between the United States and Iran, which sparked a wide-ranging debate on the international law on the use of force, Juan Guaidé toured Europe in late January to garner international support in his fight against The Maduro regime in Venezuela. The importance of this event in international law of the use of force can hardly be overstated. Indeed, some regional voices in the Western Hemisphere have suggested in recent years that you can use force against Venezuela to overthrow Maduro`s regime and restore democracy there. Specifically, there is a recent development that could pose a serious challenge to the UN Charter: the call of a group of American states against Venezuela to the 1947 Interamericano Interamericano Treaty (TIAR), also known as the “Rio Treaty.” 1941: First in a series of numerous agreements, some before NATO, related to the defense with the status of the armed forces 26. Obedience to higher orders is not a defence if law enforcement knew that an order of use of force and firearms resulting in the death or serious injury of a person was manifestly illegal and had an appropriate opportunity to follow it. In all cases, the responsibility also rests with the superiors who gave the illegitimate orders.
Second, interpretation by subsequent practice requires that the contracting parties agree or have a common understanding of the interpretation of the provision. In this particular case, although the activation of TIAR may be interpreted as an example of post-article 53 practice, it is a regional practice that is not sufficient and undisputed to be considered universal among the members of the parent treaty, that is, the Charter of the United Nations. In particular, the vast majority of parties to the Un Charter have not ruled on this interpretation and have not participated in a regional case in which this interpretation is formulated.